Sun, Apr 23, 2006 at 10:46 AM
This is the illustration of the principle of my last thermal PMM in particular, and generic principle for static generation of electricity.
From the ongoing discussion which treat gravity as a continuous force applied on an object. Then it follows that we could directly use that force as a source of energy. The technical problem is how to extract energy from the gravitational force when this force produce no displacement(thus no usable change).
The obvious way to produce change using gravity as source of energy is related to an thought experiment this author had in mind for a long time: What would happen if a Magnet is drop into a generating coil? By Lenz’s law an repulsive force would be produced to resist the downward movement of the Magnet. Given Lenz’s force is directly proportional to the rate of change of Magnetic field (which is affected by the velocity of the Magnet falling, and this velocity is given by g*t), what would be final trajectory of this Magnet look like? (When the relative movement between them is restrained to b in only one dimension.)
This thought experiment is not sufficient by itself as an conceptual framework to produce electricity using gravity as source of energy. From the reference example of air friction, the object would eventually moving downward with constant velocity. What force would return this object into its original position so the process could be repeated? Moreover, it is also known that Lenz’s force do not distinguish between the directionality of the relative movement between the source of Magnetic field and the recipient, therefore there will be situations which Lenz’s force added to the downward movement of the Magnet instead of resisting it.(As a whole increase the complexity of the calculation.)
After considerable consideration, I arrive at the following conceptual framework for production of electricity using gravity as source of energy.
1. An object is elevate to a location of higher potential energy(h) with an external source of energy.
2. It is release from the location which the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. The velocity of the falling object is allowed to accumulate over a period before its movement is translated into production of electrical energy.(The accumulating period: P(t), the silent distance=d(s))
3. When the velocity of the falling object has reached a predefined value, the falling object is interacting with either a persistent Magnetic field or generating coils to produce electricity. In the process electrical energy is elicited by kinetic energy of the falling object.(The immersing period: I(t), the active distance=d(a).)
4. The by-product of electrical generation is a a resistant force against the change in 3. This force is designated to be multiple of the weight of the falling object. Thus the object is pushed upward. (The reaction period: R(t), the reactive distance=d(r).)
5. No resistive force would be produced against upward movement of the moving object. The flow of electrical current is restrained in the generating coil in such a way that the Lenz’s force would ONLY act upward(against the downward pull of gravity)
6. The circle of 1-5 would repeat until the object reach the point of lowest potential energy.(If gravity is sufficient to pull the object to that point.)
7. Electrical output is taken at the outlet of each individual generating coil.
Gravitational force acting on the same object remain unchanged during the process. The strength of resistant force(Lenz’s force) could be adjusted by changing the parameters like the electrical resistant of the generating coils, the number of ring, the thickness of each coil, the winding of the coil and the number of generating coils.
(Downward as positive)
The constant downward force=mg
The Lenz’s force=-kv
We must have here kv>mg.(where v is the velocity when the Lenz’s law begin to take effect) Ideally we require kv=2mg. Moreover, there should also be restraining mechanism to ensure the object move only in vertical dimension.
In One instance of implementation, the functional component make up this invention would be:
1. A weight to provide the gravitation force input.
*2. A spring to both restraint the freedom of movement of the weight, and provide additional upward and downward force. (The maximum extensibility of it determine the lowest point component 1 can go.)
3. A cylindrical non-conducting tunnel to restraint the freedom of movement of the weight.
4. A persistent source of Magnetic field(usually Permanent Magnet).
5. Generating coils each with electrical component to restrict the flow of electrical current for generation of electrical current and upward force by Lenz;s law.
6. A variable resistor attached in each of 5 to adjust the resistive force.
7. An output for electricity generated in the process.
Either 4 or 5 is attached in the weight while the remain is placed at the ground. We could theoretically replace the weight with an physical/electrical mechanism that would provide a constant downward force.
In this instance of implementation, the following happen in the process:
1. Component 1, usually attached by component 2 is release at a point of higher potential energy relative to any stable persistent force field. In this case, gravitational field.
2. Driven by force field, the component 1 move to a point of lowest potential energy relative to that force field in process 1. In the case, gravity drive the weight downward.
3. Component 2 or 3 keep the motion of component 1 ‘straight’ to the point of lowest potential energy in the force field of process 1. In this instance, the weight is kept by component 2 and 3 to move down in vertical plane only. The spring also start store Restoration potential energy in the process when it is being extended.(If spring is replaced by string or any non-extensible material, we need to ensure the length of it would allow component 1 to reach the lowest potential energy point.)
4. The downward velocity of component 1 attached with either component 4 or 5 is increase since no retardation force is apparent.The relative distance between Component 4 and 5 are too far to take any effect.
5. When the relative distance between component 4 and 5 is shorten to the level when they begin to react to each other’s presence in accordance to Lenz’s Law, a force resisting the downward movement is produced at both component 4 and 5.(The Magnetic flux line from 4 is cutting the ring of coil of 5) and electrical current is produced at 5 as result.
6. The strength the resistive force is greater than weight(downward force), thereby the totality of force bump component 1 along with component 4/5 upward.
7. As component 1 is moving upward with component 4/5, component 4 is restrained by component 6 is produce no effect against its motion.
8. The restoration force(in case of spring) stored in component 2 also take effect, provide additional upward force.
9. As the component 1 goes upward, the force from component 4 and 5 is ceased while force from 2 is diminishing. Thus the upward acceleration of component 1 slows down until gravity take over again.
The cycle is repeated at 1 again.
Notice that gravity could be replace by any stable persistent force field. And direction of action of this system doesn’t have to be in upward/downward only. As long as the object are under influence of that force field and resisted by Lenz’s force, the above process and mechanism is applicable.